An expert in maritime medicine with emphasis on sea-survival, drowning and hypothermia.
MD, MPH, FACPM Rear Admiral, USPHS / USCG (RET)
*Consultant: Hypothermia, Water Survival and Cold Weather Medicine; *Professional Associate in the Health, Leisure and Human Performance Research Institute, University of Manitoba *Lecturer, United States University of Health Sciences (the Armed Forces medical school) *Scientific Referee for research articles in various journals of environmental medicine and occupational medicine
Date of Birth: 7 February 1945
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bachelor of Science, 1966.
Stanford University School of Medicine Doctor of Medicine, 1971
Mayo Graduate School of Medicine Post-Graduate Year I (medicine/surgery), 1972
Navy School of Aerospace Medicine
Navy Flight Surgeon, 1973
University of Washington - Occupational Medicine Residency 1984-1986 Master of Public Health, 1986
Professional Board Certified in Occupational Medicine, 1988 Certification: Fellow, American College of Preventive Medicine, 1989
Member: Presidential Special Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations of Gulf-War Chemical and Biological Incidents, July, 1998 - January, 2001 Director of Health and Safety, U. S. Coast Guard
U. S. Coast Guard Headquarters Washington, DC August, 1993 to September, 1997
Chief, Wellness Branch Office of Health and Safety
U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters Washington, DC February, 1991 to August, 1993 Chief, Medical Branch Division of Commissioned Personnel Office of the Surgeon General
U.S. Public Health Service Rockville, MD February, 1990 to February, 1991 Deputy Director of Medical Affairs Office of Surgeon General
U.S. Public Health Service September, 1989 to February, 1990 Chief, Clinical and Preventive Medicine
U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters April, 1987 to September, 1990
Medical Officer and Flight Surgeon USCG Support Center, Kodiak, AK January-May, 1987
Medical advisor for search and rescue operations, Search and Rescue Division, Office of Operations USCG Headquarters 1982-1984
Chief of Special Medical Operations Branch Operational Medical Division, Office of Health Services USCG Headquarters 1978-1982.
Senior Medical Officer and Flight Surgeon USCG Group Astoria, OR 1976-1978 Senior Medical Officer and Flight Surgeon USCG Group Port Angeles, WA 1974-1976
Senior Medical Officer and Flight Surgeon USCG Air Station, Cape Cod, MA 1973-1974
2012: Consultant to U.S. Coast Guard for development of a new International Post-Incident Survival Evaluation form and website to gather data on survival incidents in cold-water, warm-water, and land survival episodes, as well as for bridge jumpers and submerged automobile incidents.
2011, 2007, 2001, 1995, 1989: Co-authored the chapter on Immersion Hypothermia in the medical textbook Wilderness Medicine - Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, 2nd, 3,rd 4,th 5,th and 6th editions (see publication section).
1998-2012: Consultant to U.S. Department of Justice re hypothermia, drowning and cold-water immersion.
2010: Consultant to U.S. Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center, Pickle Meadow, CA re hypothermia, and cold-water immersion.
2009-2010: Consultant to Popular Mechanics Magazine on issues of hypothermia and drowning.
2006: Consultant and participant, U.S. Coast Guard Workshop on Survivability of Distressed Mariners, USCG R&D Center, New London, CT.
2005: Consultant and participant in University of Alaska / U.S. Coast Guard / University of Manitoba video production on water survival and hypothermia.
2005: Consultant and participant in the Great Lakes Beach and Pier Safety Task Force / video production on water safety and hypothermia.
2003-2004: Served as advisor on hypothermia, near-drowning and water survival to the U.S. Public Health Service for publication of its medical text, Ship’s Medicine Chest.
2003-2004: Co-investigator on a U.S. Coast Guard research project to evaluate the effect of head-cooling on mental status, cognitive impairment and core temperature during immersion in cold-water while wearing various types of flotation devices; University of Manitoba.
2002: Invited participant and panel moderator at the World Congress on Drowning, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
2002 – present: Provided medical consultations to CBS Television, Discovery Channel and National Geographic channel for issues relating to sea-survival, hypothermia and drowning.
2001-present: Scientific advisor on drowning, hypothermia and sea-survival to the U.S. Coast Guard for: 1) accident investigation; 2) revision of water survival and survival time sections of official Coast Guard publications; 3) cold-water survival training and research studies.
1998-2001: Served as the only medical member of a Presidential Board, chaired by Senator Warren Rudman (R-NH), overseeing the Department of Defense investigations into Gulf War Illnesses. Authored the medical sections of the Board's Final Report, presented to the Secretary of Defense in December, 2000.
2000: Served as technical consultant to the United States Coast Guard for the development of software to estimate cold-water survival time. The Coast Guard uses these survival time estimates in search and rescue operations. The survival time estimates are based in part on data from my human subject hypothermia research.
2000: Member of International Advisory Committee for Harvard University's IFISH Conference, Woods Hole, MA, October, 2000.
1999: Technical consultant for an article on sea-survival in National Geographic Adventure magazine, March/April 2000.
1999: Technical consultant for article on drowning resuscitation for Funworld Magazine, a publication written for owners, managers and life-guards at aquatic recreational parks.
1993-1997: Served as Director of Health and Safety (equivalent to the Surgeon General) of the United States Coast Guard; managed a comprehensive health care program for over 160,000 beneficiaries with a budget of over $250,000,000. Served as Director of the Coast Guard’s Safety and Environmental Health programs, which included serving as chief advisor to the Commandant of the Coast Guard on matters of sea survival, medical aspects of search and rescue, cold-weather protective clothing, and environmental medicine.
1995-present: Served as scientific peer reviewer for original research articles submitted to the journal Wilderness and Environmental Medicine.
1991 to 1993: Designed and implemented a Coast Guard wellness program for all Coast Guard beneficiaries and employees, including the establishment of a wellness training program for Coast Guard counselors, publication of a weekly Wellness Bulletin, complete revision of the Coast Guard physical fitness programs for recruits and officer candidates, implementation of an aggressive anti-tobacco program, and revision of the menus for all Coast Guard dining facilities.
1986: Co-authored the section on hypothermia for the Standards and Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC. This section served as part of the national CPR guidelines from 1986-1992 (see publications section).
1986: Designed and coordinated a realistic test of rescue capabilities following a simulated multi-victim vessel mishap in Puget Sound. This experiment involved City of Seattle and Coast Guard rescue resources to evaluate the response to a ferryboat disaster.
1986: Tested a prototype one-man liferaft in rough seas. The results of this study were used to accelerate the acquisition of this raft for both Coast Guard and Navy helicopter crewmen.
1984-1986: Developed criteria and procedures for human subject testing of protective clothing and flotation equipment in rough seas. All previous environmental testing of survival equipment had been conducted in laboratory tanks or in calm water.
1984-1986: Performed the only realistic, rough-sea tests, to date, of U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Navy immersion protective clothing. These tests permitted a more accurate evaluation of garment performance and allowed a more accurate estimation of survival times for crewmen of aircraft or vessel mishaps in heavy seas. The results of this research led to revisions of the survival tables used by both the Coast Guard and the U.S. Air Force. This research won the 1989 Arnold D. Tuttle Award from the Aerospace Medical Association for "contributions toward the solution of a challenging problem in Aerospace Medicine."
1983-1984: Co-designed the anti-exposure, fire-retardant protective clothing used by Coast Guard helicopter crewmen in cold-weather operations.
1983: Performed the human-factors evaluation of the prototype Coast Guard 30-foot Surf Rescue Boat. This evaluation resulted in improvements in both the rescue capability of this vessel and in crew habitability.
1980-1983: Co-developed an underwater escape breathing device for use by Coast Guard helicopter pilots and crewmen trapped within capsized or submerged aircraft.
1979-1982: Designed and supervised the implementation of a servicewide emergency medical services system for Coast Guard search and rescue operations, including the establishment of the EMT training school, the development of standardized emergency medical equipment for vessel and aviation use, the implementation of a data collection system, and the establishment of a Coast Guard EMT Qualification code.
1976-1978: Co-designed an inhalation-rewarming device for treating hypothermic patients transported during Coast Guard rescue operations.
1977: Served as the physician member of a three-person team of Department of Health and Human Services advisors to improve emergency medical services in Egypt, including the on-site establishment of EMT training programs in Cairo and Alexandria.
Letter of Appreciation from President Clinton for distinguished service on the Presidential Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations on Gulf War illnesses, 2000.
U.S. Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal, May, 1997 for “exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services in the duties of Coast Guard Director of Health and Safety.”
U.S Public Health Service Surgeon General’s Medallion, July, 1997, for “exceptional service in providing medical and health care to the United States Coast Guard.”
Armed Forces Legion of Merit, October, 1993, for “exceptional service in providing medical and health care to the United States Coast Guard.”
Public Health Service Unit Commendation, July, 1992, for serving as one of the "few committed and dedicated physicians willing to [spend time] at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences interviewing medical school applicants for the University."
Public Health Service Unit Commendation, January 1992, for serving as Medical Faculty during the National Disaster Medical System-RCSU Summer Exercise.
Coast Guard Achievement Medal, March, 1991, for "superior performance of duty as a member of the Coast Guard's special Health Care Delivery Systems Study."
Coast Guard Meritorious Service Medal, 1990, for "outstanding history of service to the Coast Guard from July, 1972 to September, 1989."
Arnold D. Tuttle Award, 1989, from the Aerospace Medical Association: "Awarded for original research that has made annually the most significant contribution toward the solution of a challenging problem in Aerospace Medicine."
Arthur S. Flemming Award, 1981. "Awarded to the top ten young federal employees." In recognition of my contributions in operational medicine to the U.S. Armed Forces.
Public Health Service Commendation, 1978. For on-site technical assistance in establishing a system of emergency medical services in Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt.
Coast Guard Commendation Medals, 1975 and 1978. For advancements in the fields of hypothermia resuscitation and emergency medical services.
First prize in the annual A.E. Bennet competition for Research in Biological Psychiatry. 1969: "Epinephrine metabolism and formation in the mammalian brain."
Pre-hospital Management of Immersion Hypothermia. M.B. Ducharme, A.M. Steinman, G.G. Giesbrecht. In: Handbook on Drowning: Prevention, Rescue, Treatment. Editors: Bierens JJ, et al., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, in press for publication, 2012.
Immersion in Cold Water. Giesbrecht G, Steinman A. In: Wilderness Medicine. Sixth edition. Auerbach P, editor. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, 2011.
Signs of Hypothermia and Cold-Water Shock.. Dr. Alan Steinman. In: Seamanship Secrets: 185 Tips & Techniques for Better Navigation, Cruise Planning, and Boat Handling Under Power Or Sail. John Jamieson. McGraw Hill, 2009.
Hypothermia, Drowning, and Cold-Water Survival, RADM Alan M. Steinman, U.S. Coast Guard Passenger Vessel Safety Program, http://www.uscg.mil/pvs/docs/Coldwater1.pdf, 2008.
Immersion in Cold Water. Giesbrecht G, Steinman A. In: Wilderness Medicine. Fifth edition. Auerbach P, editor. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, 2007.
Prehospital Management of Immersion Hypothermia. Ducharme M, Steinman A, Giesbrecht G. In: Handbook of Drowning; Prevention, Rescue, Treatment. Bierens JJLM, editor. Springer-Verlag Publications, Berlin, 2006
The four stges of cold-water immersion. Steinman A, Giesbrecht G. On Scene-The J of USCG Search and Rescue, COMDTPUB P16100.4, Fall 2006.
Thermal effects of whole head submersion in cold water on non-shivering humans. Pretorius P, Bristow GK, Steinman AM, Giesbrecht GG. J. Appl. Physiol. 2006 Apr, 101: 669-675.
Thermal effects of dorsal head immersion in cold water on nonshivering humans. Giesbrecht GG, Lockhart TL, Bristow GK, Steinman AM. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005 Nov, 99(5): 1958-64.
Life jacket design affects dorsal head and chest exposure, core cooling, and cognition in 10 °C water. Lockhart TL, Jamieson CP, Steinman AM, Giesbrecht GG. Aviat Space and Environ Med 2005 Oct, 76(10): 954-62.
Pre-hospital Management of Immersion Hypothermia. M.B. Ducharme, A.M. Steinman, G.G. Giesbrecht. In: Handbook on Drowning: Prevention, Rescue, Treatment. Editors: Bierens JJ, et al., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2005.
The facts about falling into cold water. RADM Alan M. Steinman. Editorial in The Standard-Times, Bedford, MA, 14 February 2005.
Flotation Posture in the Design of Personal Flotation Devices: The Effects of Dorsal Head Cooling on Core Temperature and Mental Performance, A.M. Steinman, et al; Final Technical Report for the U.S. Coast Guard, 2004.
Immersion Hypothermia, Near-Drowning and Water Survival. Steinman, A. In: The Ship’s Medical Chest and Medical Aid at Sea. 2003 edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 2004.
Cold-Water Immersion. Steinman A, Giesbrecht G. In: Wilderness Medicine. Fourth edition. Auerbach P, editor. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, 2001.
Overview of Health Effects. In: Final Report: Special Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations of Gulf War Chemical and Biological Incidents. December, 2000.
U.S. Department of Defense.
The Role of Stress as a Contributing Factor in Gulf War Undiagnosed Illnesses. In: Final Report: Special Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations of Gulf War Chemical and Biological Incidents. December, 2000. U.S. Department of Defense.
Cold-Water Immersion. Steinman A, Hayward J. In: Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. Third edition. Auerbach P and Geehr E, editors. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1995.
Protective clothing in cold water survival. Steinman A. In: Myers ML, Klatt ML eds. Proceedings of the National Fishing Industry Safety and Health Workshop. Anchorage, AK:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-109, 1994.
Cold-Water Immersion. Steinman A, Hayward J. In: Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. Second edition. Auerbach P and Geehr E, editors. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1989.
Contributor to: Improving Transportation for a Maturing Society, U.S. Department of Transportation, (DOT-P10-97-01), January 1997.
Pre-hospital management of immersion hypothermia. Steinman A. Emergency Care Quarterly 4(3):33-37; 1988.
Immersion hypothermia: comparative protection of anti-exposure garments in calm vs. rough seas. Steinman A, Hayward J, Nemiroff M and Kubilis P. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 58:550-8; 1987.
Prehospital management of hypothermia: rescue, examine, insulate and transport. Steinman A. Journal of Emergency Medical Services, 1987.
Adverse effects of heat and cold on military operations: history and current solutions. Steinman
A. Military Medicine 152(8): 389-92; 1987.
Rewarming in accidental hypothermia. Steinman A. Wilderness Medicine 4(3): 3-4; 1987.
Prehospital management of hypothermia. Steinman A. Response 6:18, 1987.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and hypothermia. Steinman A. Circulation 74(6):29-32; 1986.
Survival at sea: the effects of protective clothing and survivor location on core and skin temperature (abstract). Steinman A, Kubilis P. Annals of Physiological Anthropology 5(3):158; 1986.
A comparison of protection against immersion hypothermia provided by Coast Guard anti-exposure clothing in calm vs. rough seas (abstract). Steinman A, Hayward J, Nemiroff M and Kubilis P. Annals of Physiological Anthropology 5(3):156; 1986.
Heat balance wearing anti-exposure suits in warm conditions (abstract). Nunneley S, Steinman A, Krock L. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 57(5):500; 1986.
Special resuscitation situations (hypothermia). In: Standards and guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiac care (ECC). Journal of the American Medical Association 255(21):2931; 1986.
Immersion hypothermia. Steinman A. Proceedings of the 1986 Wilderness Medicine Symposium, University of Washington School of Medicine; 1986.
Survival at sea: the effects of protective clothing and survivor location on core and skin temperatures. Steinman A, Kubilis P. U.S. Department of Transportation Report No. CG-D26-86, NTIS No.A175316, November 1986.
A comparison of the protection against immersion hypothermia provided by Coast Guard anti-exposure clothing in calm vs. rough seas. Steinman A, Nemiroff M, Hayward J, Kubilis P. U.S. Department of Transportation Report No. CG-D-17-85, NTIS No. AD A158413, June 1985.
Pre-hospital management of hypothermia: rescue, examine, insulate, transport. Steinman A. Proceedings of the 1985 Mountain Medicine Symposium, University of California, Davis School of Medicine; 1985
Environmental Emergencies (contributing editor) In: Emergency Medical Care, A Manual for the Paramedic in the Field. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1984.
A few more thoughts on water survival. Steinman A. On-Scene National Maritime Search and Rescue Review, 3:14, 1984.
A few thoughts on water survival. Steinman A. On-Scene National Maritime Search and Rescue Review, 2:12, 1984.
The hypothermic code: CPR controversy revisited. Steinman A. Journal of Emergency Medical Services. 10:32-35; 1983.
Emergency medical services in U.S. Coast Guard search and rescue operations. (abstract). Steinman, A. Proceedings of the 1979 Aerospace Medical Association Scientific Meeting.
Accidental hypothermia: an experimental study of practical rewarming methods. Collis M, Steinman A, Chaney R. J. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 48:625-632; 1977.
Immersion hypothermia. Steinman A, Parris J. Emergency 9:24-28; 1977.
Accidental hypothermia: an experimental study of inhalation rewarming. Hayward J, Steinman A. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 46:1236-1240; 1975.
Epinephrine formation and metabolism in mammalian brain. Barchas J, Ciaranello R, Steinman A. Biological Psychiatry. 1:31-48; 1969. (This paper was awarded 1st Prize in the
A.E. Bennett Neuropsychiatric Research Competition).
Epinephrine metabolism in mammalian brain after intravenous and intraventricular administration. Steinman A, Smerin S, Barchas J. Science 165:616-617; 1969.
Drowning, Hypothermia and Sea-Survival, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD; 2006 - 2011.
Hypothermia and Cold-Water Survival, International Ice Symposium, Bay City, MI, February, 2006.
Hypothermia: The Silent Killer – video presentation for the Great Lakes Beach & Pier Safety Task Force; Grand Haven, MI. In: Respect the Power DVD, December, 2005.
Hypothermia and Cold-water Survival, North Atlantic International Maritime Rescue Coordination Center Conference, Boston, MA, October, 2005.
Immersion Hypothermia and Cold-Water Drowning, International Association of Dive Rescue Specialists, Hartford, CT; October, 2005.
Hypothermia, Drowning and Sea-Survival, USCG Passenger Vessel Safety Conference, Seattle, WA; May, 2005
Drowning, Hypothermia and Sea-Survival, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD; April, 2005.
Hypothermia, cold-water survival and PFD design; Personal Flotation Device Manufacturer’s Association annual meeting, Newport Beach, CA: March 2005 USCG Rescue Coordination Center staff, Boating Safety personnel, and First Coast Guard District staff, Boston, MA; Hypothermia and Cold-Water Survival; March, 2004.
USCG Ice Rescue Symposium, Bay City, MI; Hypothermia and Cold Water Survival; February, 2004.
USCG Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee, Washington, DC; Hypothermia and Cold Water Survival; November, 2003.
USCG National Motor Lifeboat School, Cape Disappointment, WA: Hypothermia and Cold Water Survival, September, 2001.
Long Beach, WA and Ilwaco, WA EMS, Fire Dept. and Police Dept, Ilwaco, WA: Hypothermia and Cold Water Survival, September, 2001.
University of California, San Diego, Wilderness Medicine Conferences, Keystone, CO: Cold water immersion and hypothermia, July, 2001 and July 2000.
National Fishing Industry Safety and Health Workshop. Anchorage, AK: Protective clothing in cold water survival, 1993.
University of California, San Diego, Marine Medicine Conference: Hypothermia and cold-water survival. 1992
University of California, San Diego, Marine Medicine Conference: Hypothermia and cold-water survival. 1991
University of California, San Diego, Marine Medicine Conference: Hypothermia and cold-water survival. 1990
University of California, San Diego, Marine Medicine Conference: Hypothermia and cold-water survival. 1989
University of California, San Diego, Marine Medicine Conference: Hypothermia and cold-water survival. 1988
The 4th International Environmental Ergonomics Conference, Austin, Texas, 1990. Recent advances in hypothermia research.
National Conference on Standards and Guidelines for CPR and Emergency Cardiac Care, Dallas, TX, 1985. Selected as faculty by the American Heart Association for the pre-hospital treatment of hypothermia.
International Red Cross Symposium on Emergency Medical Care, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1981. Selected as the American Red Cross representative to the panel on hypothermia and frostbite management.
Aerospace Medical Association, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, 1987: Rough sea survival
and protective clothing. Safety at Sea Conferences, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT, 1987-1992. Hypothermia and cold-water survival.
The 2nd International Environmental Ergonomics Conference, Whistler Mountain, British
Columbia, 1986. Thermal characteristics of cold-water immersion protective clothing. International Rescue '86 Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, 1986. Hypothermia and cold-water immersion.
International Dive Rescue Conference, Fort Collins, CO, 1985. Hypothermia and cold-water
drowning. International Conference on Disaster at Sea. Cuxhaven, Germany, 1982. Triage problems during disasters at sea.
National Safety Conference Annual Meeting, Chicago, 1983. Hypothermia and cold-water
survival. International Conference on Hypothermia. Univ. of Rhode Island, 1980. Chairman, panel on inhalation warming for accidental hypothermia.
Safety at Sea Conference. U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, 1980. Hypothermia.
International Conference on Disaster Medicine, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 1979. U.S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue Operations. Aerospace Medical Association Scientific Meetings, Washington, D.C., 1979. U.S. Coast Guard
EMS. American Trauma Society Annual Conferences, 1977. Management of Accidental hypothermia.